Internal Pipeline Integrity Assessment and Pigging Technology

Course Properties

Course date: 10-12-2017
Course End Date: 14-12-2017
Location Cairo

Course Overview:

    Corrosion is a dominant contributing factor to failures and leaks in pipelines. The high cost of corrosion and corrosion control in multiphase (oil, gas, and brine) pipelines represents a significant operating expense for the field. Corrosion severely affects pipeline operations, leading to lost production, unscheduled downtime for maintenance or repair, and even catastrophic failure that impacts health, environment, and safety. Maintaining the ageing infrastructure such as underground pipelines is always a challenge to facility owners worldwide. This 5-day course covers internal pipeline corrosion, inline inspection and assessment methodology, and pigging technology. A practical field guide for investigating internal corrosion of pipelines is also presented.

   This course is available for in-house training, online and distance learning worldwide. It can also be customized to meet the specific needs of your organization.

Who Should Attend?

              • Engineers and technologists who are in charge of pipeline integrity

              • Technicians and maintenance personnel who deal with pipeline inspection and maintenance.

              • Facility owners and users who are concerned with pipeline internal corrosion.


Course Outline:

           1.1 Natural Gas Internal Pipeline Corrosion

                       1.1.1 Definition

                       1.1.2 The threats and impacts of internal corrosion in the oil and gas transmission systems

                       1.1.3 Natural gas transmission systems vs. oil or mixed-phase transmission systems

                       1.1.4 Internal corrosion vs. external corrosion


           1.2 Different forms of internal corrosion

                       1.2.1 Uniform Corrosion

                       1.2.2 Localized Corrosion

                       1.2.3 Pitting

                       1.2.4 Crevice Corrosion

                       1.2.5 Mesa Corrosion

                       1.2.6 Weld Zone Corrosion

                       1.2.7 Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC)

                       1.2.8 Flow-Assisted Damage

         2.1 Internal Corrosion Mechanisms

                       2.1.1 Galvanic Corrosion

                       2.1.2 Concentration Cells

                       2.1.3 Environmentally Assisted Cracking Mechanisms

                       2.1.4 Hydrogen Damage

                       2.1.5 Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC)

                       2.1.6 Hydrogen Embrittlement (HE)

                       2.1.7 Stress-Oriented Hydrogen Induced Cracking (SOHIC)

                       2.1.8 Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC)

                       2.1.9 Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)

                       2.1.10 Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME)

                       2.1.11 Flow-Assisted Damage Mechanisms

                       2.1.12 Erosion

                       2.1.13 Impingement

                       2.1.14 Erosion-Corrosion

                       2.1.15 Cavitation


         2.2 Exercise/practical session

         3.1 The Corrosive Species and their effects on internal corrosion

                       3.1.1 Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

                       3.1.2 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

                       3.1.3 Oxygen

                       3.1.4 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion


       3.2 The type of pipelines affected by internal corrosion

                      3.2.1 Upstream Petroleum Production Pipelines

                      3.2.2 Transmission Pipelines

                      3.2.3 Distribution Pipelines

                      3.2.4 Pipeline Facilities

                      3.2.5 Other Service Pipelines

                      3.2.6 Exercise/practical session


       4.1 Internal corrosion inspection and assessment methodology

                     4.1.1 Inspection methods

                     4.1.2 Direct Assessment Methodology


      4.2 Internal corrosion monitoring

                     4.2.1 Details of failure

                     4.2.2 Direct Intrusive Techniques

                     4.2.3 Direct Non-Intrusive Techniques

                     4.2.4 Indirect Methods

                     4.2.4 Monitoring techniques


      4.3 Modeling and Prediction of Internal Corrosion

                     4.3.1 Corrosion rate prediction flow chart

                     4.3.2 Corrosion rate prediction models


       4.4 Exercise/practical

       5.1 Control and Treatment of Internal Corrosion

                    5.1.1 Eliminating the Corrosive Environments

                    5.1.2 Altering Operating & Maintenance Procedures (e.g. Regular Cleaning by Pigging)

                    5.1.3 Chemical Treatment (Inhibitors & Biocides, pH stabilisation)


       5.2 Design to Prevent Internal Corrosion

                    5.2.1 Design and Operation

                    5.2.2 System Design

                    5.2.3 Gas Transmission Pipeline Drips

                    5.2.4 Dead Legs/Ends

                    5.2.5 Pipeline Fittings

                    5.2.6 Compressor Stations and Associated Piping

                    5.2.7 Water Removal

                    5.2.8 Removal of Potentially Corrosive Gases

                    5.2.9 Modifying Flow Characteristics

                    5.2.10 Physical Design Changes

                    5.2.11 Selecting and Implementing Appropriate Methods

                    5.2.12.Effectiveness of Mitigation Method


       5.3 Optimization of Internal Corrosion management Program

                    5.3.1 Risk management

                    5.3.2 Risk identification

                    5.3.3 Risk evaluation

                    5.3.4 Risk mitigation

                    5.3.5 Risk monitoring

                    5.3.6 Risk based decision making

       5.4 NACE Standards on International Corrosion

       5.5 Field Guide for Investigating Internal Corrosion of Pipelines

       6.1 Introduction to Pigging Technology

                  6.1.1 How pigs work

                  6.1.2 Pig functions and selection

                  6.1.3 Pipeline design for pigging

                  6.1.4 Pigging Techniques and Equipment


      6.2 Pigging for Pipeline Integrity Assessment

                  6.2.1 The needs for pigging

                  6.2.2 Overview of pipeline internal inspection and monitoring methods and capabilities

                  6.2.3 Advanced ILI technologies: what methods are available for the pipeline industry?

                  6.2.4 Capabilities and functions of ILI tools: what can they do?

                  6.2.5 Methods selection and optimization


     6.3 What Pipeline Operators Need to Know About Pigging:

                 6.3.1 Type of pigs available

                 6.3.2 How intelligent pigs work

                 6.3.3 Piggable vs unpiggable pipelines

                 6.3.4 Impact of pigging inspection on the operation of pipelines

                 6.3.5 When to use intelligent pigs

                 6.3.6 Budgeting for ILI inspection

                 6.3.7 Typical costs of ILI inspection

                 6.3.8 Selection of intelligent pig for pipeline internal inspection

                 6.3.9 Comparison between low resolution (1st Generation) and high resolution (2nd Generation) MFL pigs

                 6.3.10 Reliability of intelligent pigs

                 6.3.11 Accuracy of intelligent pigs

                 6.3.12 Comparison between UT pigs and high resolution MFL pigs

                 6.3.13 Detection of cracks in pipelines by intelligent pigs

                 6.3.14 Inspection by intelligent pigs vs. in-service hydrotest

                 6.3.15 Consideration of 'fingerprint' ('baseline') inspection

                 6.3.16. When, and How frequent, ILI tools should be used for pipeline internal inspection.


      6.4 Interpretation of intelligent-pig survey results

      6.5 Assessment of pipeline defects detected during pigging operations

      6.6 Pigging and chemical treatment of pipelines

      7.1 Risk assessment and pipeline integrity

      7.2 Case studies: pigging of gas pipelines

      7.3 End of course examination